Node.js Microservices with Docker, MongoDB, TSOA, Express, GraphQL, and Nginx

June 16, 2023

Node.js Microservices with Docker, MongoDB, TSOA, Express, GraphQL, and Nginx


Node.js is a popular JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine. It allows you to build scalable and efficient server-side applications using JavaScript.

// Sample Node.js code
const http = require('http');

const server = http.createServer((req, res) => {
  res.statusCode = 200;
  res.setHeader('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
  res.end('Hello, World!');

server.listen(3000, 'localhost', () => {
  console.log('Server running at http://localhost:3000/');

Microservices with Docker

Microservices architecture involves building applications as a collection of loosely coupled services, each running in its own process. Docker is a containerization platform that allows you to package and deploy microservices as lightweight, isolated containers. It provides consistency, portability, and scalability for your microservices.

# Dockerfile for a Node.js microservice
FROM node:14-alpine


COPY package*.json ./

RUN npm install

COPY . .


CMD [ "npm", "start" ]

MongoDB Database

MongoDB is a NoSQL document database that provides flexibility and scalability for storing and managing data in microservices environments. It is schema-less, allowing for dynamic and evolving data structures.

// Sample code to connect to MongoDB
const mongoose = require('mongoose');

mongoose.connect('mongodb://localhost/mydatabase', {
  useNewUrlParser: true,
  useUnifiedTopology: true,

const db = mongoose.connection;
db.on('error', console.error.bind(console, 'Connection error:'));
db.once('open', () => {
  console.log('Connected to MongoDB');


TSOA (TypeScript OpenAPI) is a TypeScript-first framework that enables you to build RESTful APIs with strongly-typed contracts. It generates OpenAPI specifications and TypeScript code based on your API controllers and models, simplifying API development and documentation.

// Sample TSOA API controller
import { Controller, Get } from 'tsoa';
import { User } from '../models/User';

export class UserController extends Controller {
  public async getUsers(): Promise<User[]> {
    // Retrieve users from the database
    const users = await User.find();

    return users;


Express is a popular Node.js web application framework that provides a simple and flexible approach to building web APIs. It offers features like routing, middleware support, and request/response handling, making it ideal for developing microservices.

// Sample Express API route
import express from 'express';

const app = express();

app.get('/users', (req, res) => {
  // Retrieve users from the database
  const users = await User.find();


app.listen(3000, () => {
  console.log('Server running at http://localhost:3000/');


GraphQL is a query language and runtime for APIs that provides a more efficient and flexible way to fetch and manipulate data. It allows clients to request specific data structures and eliminates issues like over-fetching or under-fetching. GraphQL can be used alongside Express to build powerful and customizable APIs.

// Sample GraphQL schema
import { buildSchema } from 'graphql';

const schema = buildSchema(`
  type User {
    id: ID!
    name: String!
    email: String!

  type Query {
    users: [User]

// Sample GraphQL resolver
const root = {
  users: async () => {
    // Retrieve users from the database
    const users = await User.find();

    return users;

// Express with GraphQL middleware
    schema: schema,
    rootValue: root,
    graphiql: true,


Nginx is a high-performance web server and reverse proxy server. It is commonly used as a load balancer to distribute incoming traffic across multiple microservices instances, providing scalability, reliability, and improved performance. Nginx also offers features like SSL termination, caching, and request routing.

# Nginx configuration for load balancing
http {
  upstream backend {

  server {
    listen 80;

    location / {
      proxy_pass http://backend;


By leveraging the combination of Node.js, Docker, MongoDB, TSOA, Express, GraphQL, and Nginx, you can build scalable and modular microservices architectures. Node.js provides the runtime environment, Docker ensures easy deployment and scalability, MongoDB offers a flexible database solution, TSOA simplifies API development, Express provides a robust web framework, GraphQL enables efficient data retrieval and manipulation, and Nginx serves as a powerful reverse proxy and load balancer.

When using this stack, you can benefit from the strong typing and development experience provided by TypeScript, the ease of containerization and deployment with Docker, the flexibility and scalability of MongoDB, the simplicity and flexibility of TSOA and Express, the efficient and customizable data retrieval with GraphQL, and the load balancing and performance optimization capabilities of Nginx.

Remember to consider the specific requirements of your project and the trade-offs involved in each technology choice to ensure they align with your needs and goals.

Note: This document provides a high-level overview and code snippets for illustration purposes. It’s recommended to refer to official documentation and relevant tutorials for each technology to understand the complete implementation details and best practices.

Written by Manoj Bhardwaj who lives and works in Dharamshala Himachal Pradesh (India). My stackoverflow